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Latitude 40.178 / Longitude -75.332 was chosen.

Geometry Information Elevation: 175 meters
averaged from the
USGS GTOPO30
digital elevation model
Northern boundary
41
Western boundary
-76
Center
Latitude 40.5
Longitude -75.5
Eastern boundary
-75
Southern boundary
40
Show A Location Map

Parameters for Solar Cooking:
Monthly Averaged Insolation Incident On A Horizontal Surface (kWh/m2/day)
Lat 40.178
Lon -75.332
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec
22-year Average 1.892.753.614.425.185.535.554.944.113.142.041.63
Parameter Definition          

Monthly Averaged Midday Insolation Incident On A Horizontal Surface (kW/m2)
Lat 40.178
Lon -75.332
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec
22-year Average 0.280.400.460.520.560.600.600.560.500.410.280.25
Parameter Definition          

Monthly Averaged Clear Sky Insolation Incident On A Horizontal Surface (kWh/m2/day)
Lat 40.178
Lon -75.332
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec
22-year Average 3.014.245.696.887.737.557.486.695.894.453.172.61
Parameter Definition          

Monthly Averaged Clear Sky Days (days)
Lat 40.178
Lon -75.332
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec
22-year Average 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 2 2
Parameter Definition          

Parameters for Sizing and Pointing of Solar Panels and for Solar Thermal Applications:
Monthly Averaged Insolation Incident On A Horizontal Surface (kWh/m2/day)
Lat 40.178
Lon -75.332
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec Annual
Average
22-year Average 1.892.753.614.425.185.535.554.944.113.142.041.633.73

Minimum And Maximum Difference From Monthly Averaged Insolation (%)
Lat 40.178
Lon -75.332
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec
Minimum -14 -15 -11 -16 -30 -22 -14 -10 -15 -15 -20 -23
Maximum 15 19 15 15 19 16 12 13 18 21 20 17
Parameter Definition          

Monthly Averaged Diffuse Radiation Incident On A Horizontal Surface (kWh/m2/day)
Lat 40.178
Lon -75.332
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec Annual
Average
22-year Average 0.791.071.532.012.352.492.392.091.661.200.870.711.60
Minimum 0.740.941.421.912.172.342.251.971.481.010.790.661.48
Maximum 0.801.111.562.012.262.492.442.141.711.250.870.701.61
22-year Average K 0.450.480.460.450.460.470.490.480.490.490.440.430.47
Minimum K 0.380.410.410.380.320.370.420.440.410.420.350.330.39
Maximum K 0.510.570.540.520.550.550.550.550.570.600.530.500.54
Parameter Definition          

Monthly Averaged Direct Normal Radiation (kWh/m2/day)
Lat 40.178
Lon -75.332
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec Annual
Average
22-year Average 3.133.873.974.014.424.664.884.584.394.193.142.814.01

Minimum And Maximum Difference From Monthly Averaged Direct Normal Radiation (%)
Lat 40.178
Lon -75.332
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec
Minimum -19 -15 -14 -25 -48 -34 -20 -12 -18 -14 -28 -35
Maximum 24 29 25 26 38 29 20 20 27 31 35 30
Parameter Definition          

Monthly Averaged Insolation Incident On A Horizontal Surface At Indicated GMT Times (kW/m2)
Lat 40.178
Lon -75.332
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec
Average@00 n/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/a
Average@03 n/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/a
Average@06 n/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/a
Average@09 n/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/a
Average@12 n/an/an/a0.150.220.230.220.170.13n/an/an/a
Average@15 0.230.300.390.470.530.550.560.520.460.390.270.21
Average@18 0.280.400.460.520.560.600.600.560.500.410.280.25
Average@21 n/a0.160.230.280.330.350.370.320.240.14n/an/a
Parameter Definition          

Monthly Averaged Insolation Clearness Index (0 to 1.0)
Lat 40.178
Lon -75.332
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec Annual
Average
22-year Average K 0.450.480.460.450.460.470.490.480.490.490.440.430.47
Minimum K 0.380.410.410.380.320.370.420.440.410.420.350.330.39
Maximum K 0.510.570.540.520.550.550.550.550.570.600.530.500.54
Parameter Definition          

Monthly Averaged Insolation Normalized Clearness Index (0 to 1.0)
Lat 40.178
Lon -75.332
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec
22-year Average 0.410.440.420.410.420.430.440.440.450.450.400.39
Parameter Definition          

Monthly Averaged Clear Sky Insolation Incident On A Horizontal Surface (kWh/m2/day)
Lat 40.178
Lon -75.332
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec Annual
Average
22-year Average 3.014.245.696.887.737.557.486.695.894.453.172.615.45
Parameter Definition          

Monthly Averaged Clear Sky Insolation Clearness Index (0 to 1.0)
Lat 40.178
Lon -75.332
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec
22-year Average 0.710.740.730.710.700.650.660.660.700.700.690.69
Parameter Definition          

Monthly Averaged Clear Sky Insolation Normalized Clearness Index (0 to 1.0)
Lat 40.178
Lon -75.332
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec
22-year Average 0.650.680.670.650.640.590.600.600.640.640.630.63
Parameter Definition          

Monthly Averaged Downward Longwave Radiative Flux (kWh/m2/day)
Lat 40.178
Lon -75.332
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec Annual
Average
22-year Average 6.206.306.767.378.138.869.229.078.507.677.076.447.64
Parameter Definition          

Solar Geometry:
Monthly Averaged Solar Noon (GMT time)
Lat 40.178
Lon -75.332
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec
Average 171217161711170216581701170817061657164816461654
Parameter Definition          

Monthly Averaged Daylight Hours (hours)
Lat 40.178
Lon -75.332
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec
Average 9.6610.711.913.214.414.914.713.712.511.110.09.38
Parameter Definition          

Monthly Averaged Daylight Average Of Hourly Cosine Solar Zenith Angles (dimensionless)
Lat 40.178
Lon -75.332
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec
Average 0.330.370.460.540.540.580.560.580.480.420.330.30
Parameter Definition          

Monthly Averaged Cosine Solar Zenith Angle At Mid-Time Between Sunrise And Solar Noon (dimensionless)
Lat 40.178
Lon -75.332
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec
Average 0.340.430.520.590.630.640.630.610.550.460.370.32
Parameter Definition          

Monthly Averaged Declination (degrees)
Lat 40.178
Lon -75.332
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec
Average -20.7-12.3-1.89.7018.823.021.213.73.09-8.45-18.1-22.8
Parameter Definition          

Monthly Averaged Sunset Hour Angle (degrees)
Lat 40.178
Lon -75.332
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec
Average 71.379.388.498.310611110910192.682.773.969.1
Parameter Definition          

Monthly Averaged Maximum Solar Angle Relative To The Horizon (degrees)
Lat 40.178
Lon -75.332
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec
Average 29.037.448.059.568.672.871.063.652.941.331.626.9
Parameter Definition          

Monthly Averaged Hourly Solar Angles Relative To The Horizon (degrees)
Lat 40.178
Lon -75.332
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec
0000 GMTn/an/an/an/a0.844.234.07n/an/an/an/an/a
0100 GMTn/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/a
0200 GMTn/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/a
0300 GMTn/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/a
0400 GMTn/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/a
0500 GMTn/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/a
0600 GMTn/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/a
0700 GMTn/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/a
0800 GMTn/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/a
0900 GMTn/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/a
1000 GMTn/an/an/an/a1.573.911.58n/an/an/an/an/a
1100 GMTn/an/an/a5.8912.414.412.17.822.67n/an/an/a
1200 GMTn/a0.288.2517.323.725.623.319.114.08.151.75n/a
1300 GMT5.5710.919.328.735.137.034.730.625.218.611.56.73
1400 GMT14.520.629.639.546.448.446.141.735.627.920.015.0
1500 GMT21.728.738.549.356.959.356.951.944.535.426.621.5
1600 GMT26.834.545.056.565.368.666.259.950.740.130.625.6
1700 GMT28.937.347.959.568.672.870.963.552.941.231.526.9
1800 GMT28.036.446.556.864.868.867.961.050.238.529.125.0
1900 GMT24.032.141.149.756.159.659.453.643.532.423.720.4
2000 GMT17.525.032.940.145.648.748.843.734.424.016.113.4
2100 GMT9.1516.123.029.334.337.337.532.623.914.16.964.86
2200 GMTn/a5.9512.117.922.825.926.021.212.73.36n/an/a
2300 GMTn/an/a0.816.5711.614.814.89.851.27n/an/an/a
Parameter Definition          

Monthly Averaged Hourly Solar Azimuth Angles (degrees)
Lat 40.178
Lon -75.332
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec
0000 GMTn/an/an/an/a294296294n/an/an/an/an/a
0100 GMTn/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/a
0200 GMTn/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/a
0300 GMTn/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/a
0400 GMTn/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/a
0500 GMTn/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/a
0600 GMTn/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/a
0700 GMTn/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/a
0800 GMTn/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/a
0900 GMTn/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/a
1000 GMTn/an/an/an/a66.562.863.1n/an/an/an/an/a
1100 GMTn/an/an/a82.375.871.872.378.488.0n/an/an/a
1200 GMTn/a10699.591.984.880.581.287.897.8108115n/a
1300 GMT12311610910294.589.690.497.8108119126127
1400 GMT134128121114106100101109121131137138
1500 GMT146141136130121114115124136146151151
1600 GMT161157154151145138137146157164167166
1700 GMT176175176179181179174176181184183181
1800 GMT192193198207216220214208205203200196
1900 GMT207210217229239244239231224219215210
2000 GMT221225233244255259255247240233227223
2100 GMT232237246257266270267260252245238234
2200 GMTn/a248257267275279276270263255n/an/a
2300 GMTn/an/a267277285287285279272n/an/an/a
Parameter Definition          

Parameters for Tilted Solar Panels:
Monthly Averaged Radiation Incident On An Equator-Pointed Tilted Surface (kWh/m2/day)
Lat 40.178
Lon -75.332
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec Annual
Average
SSE HRZ1.892.753.614.425.185.535.554.944.113.142.041.633.73
K0.450.480.460.450.460.470.490.480.490.490.440.430.47
Diffuse0.791.071.532.012.352.492.392.091.661.200.870.711.60
Direct3.133.873.974.014.424.664.884.584.394.193.142.814.01
Tilt 01.882.683.574.405.155.475.504.924.043.112.021.623.70
Tilt 252.753.524.164.625.095.285.375.044.553.982.832.454.14
Tilt 403.083.784.244.474.754.854.964.804.564.223.132.784.14
Tilt 553.243.844.114.114.194.204.324.334.334.253.262.963.93
Tilt 902.933.203.052.672.462.352.452.673.053.442.872.722.82
OPT3.263.854.244.635.205.495.545.074.584.263.272.984.37
OPT ANG61.052.038.022.011.06.008.0017.033.049.058.063.034.7
Parameter Definition          

Minimum Radiation Incident On An Equator-pointed Tilted Surface (kWh/m2/day)
Lat 40.178
Lon -75.332
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec Annual
Average
SSE MIN1.632.353.203.713.624.344.764.473.482.671.631.263.09
K0.380.410.410.380.320.370.420.440.410.420.350.330.39
Diffuse0.801.111.562.012.262.492.442.141.711.250.870.701.61
Direct2.533.263.392.992.263.073.874.033.583.592.241.803.05
Tilt 01.622.293.163.693.594.294.724.453.422.651.611.253.07
Tilt 252.262.893.613.833.544.154.614.543.773.262.121.743.36
Tilt 402.493.073.663.693.323.844.274.323.743.412.291.923.34
Tilt 552.603.093.533.402.973.383.753.913.553.402.352.003.16
Tilt 902.312.542.612.241.872.022.212.442.502.722.031.792.27
OPT2.603.103.663.843.624.314.754.573.783.432.352.003.50
OPT ANG59.049.036.020.09.005.008.0016.030.046.055.059.032.5
Parameter Definition          

Maximum Radiation Incident On An Equator-pointed Tilted Surface (kWh/m2/day)
Lat 40.178
Lon -75.332
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec Annual
Average
SSE MAX2.173.284.165.076.176.416.245.574.833.802.451.904.34
K0.510.570.540.520.550.550.550.550.570.600.530.500.54
Diffuse0.740.941.421.912.172.342.251.971.481.010.790.661.48
Direct3.895.014.975.096.106.025.875.535.595.514.243.665.12
Tilt 02.163.194.115.046.136.356.195.544.753.772.421.894.30
Tilt 253.314.404.915.366.086.126.045.725.475.053.613.024.93
Tilt 403.764.805.055.195.655.585.565.455.525.454.063.494.96
Tilt 554.004.934.934.774.954.784.814.915.285.544.283.754.74
Tilt 903.654.153.673.062.792.552.632.963.704.553.843.503.42
OPT4.034.935.055.366.226.376.235.755.545.554.303.805.26
OPT ANG63.054.040.023.011.06.008.0018.035.052.061.065.036.2
Parameter Definition          

Parameters for Sizing Battery or other Energy-storage Systems:
Minimum Available Insolation Over A Consecutive-day Period (%)
Lat 40.178
Lon -75.332
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec
Min/1 day 3.179.094.154.525.017.4111.19.915.355.093.924.29
Min/3 day 25.923.723.915.320.720.827.529.318.420.719.429.8
Min/7 day 32.052.551.242.242.744.150.850.143.248.744.547.8
Min/14 day 51.067.171.261.655.558.775.571.762.555.359.163.4
Min/21 day 70.567.479.772.461.561.474.778.772.266.767.066.9
Min/Month 86.285.488.683.969.878.485.790.484.685.079.977.3
Parameter Definition          

Solar Radiation Deficits Below Expected Values Incident On A Horizontal Surface Over A Consecutive-day Period (kWh/m2)
Lat 40.178
Lon -75.332
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec
1 day 1.832.503.464.224.925.124.934.453.892.981.961.56
3 day 4.206.298.2411.212.313.112.010.410.07.474.933.43
7 day 8.989.1312.317.820.721.619.017.216.311.27.925.95
14 day 12.912.614.523.732.231.918.919.521.519.611.68.34
21 day 11.618.715.325.541.844.729.322.023.921.914.111.3
Month 8.0611.212.721.348.335.724.414.518.914.512.311.4
Parameter Definition          

Equivalent Number Of NO-SUN Or BLACK Days (days)
Lat 40.178
Lon -75.332
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec
1 day 0.960.900.950.950.940.920.880.900.940.940.960.95
3 day 2.222.282.282.542.372.372.172.112.442.372.412.10
7 day 4.753.323.414.044.003.903.433.483.973.583.883.65
14 day 6.854.604.025.376.215.763.413.955.236.255.725.11
21 day 6.186.824.245.778.068.095.294.465.836.986.926.95
Month 4.264.073.524.819.336.454.412.944.594.646.027.03
Parameter Definition          

Parameters for Sizing Surplus-product Storage Systems:
Available Surplus Insolation Over A Consecutive-day Period (%)
Lat 40.178
Lon -75.332
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec
Max/1 day 197 195 189 182 172 160 161 166 175 174 195 182
Max/3 day 177 176 187 178 171 151 151 152 168 167 173 176
Max/7 day 159 151 163 171 147 137 139 143 153 152 157 148
Max/14 day 144 137 140 154 134 126 129 130 134 140 152 125
Max/21 day 133 133 131 134 125 123 124 125 126 134 142 122
Max/Month 115 119 115 115 119 116 112 113 118 121 120 117
Parameter Definition          

Cloud Information:
Monthly Averaged Daylight Cloud Amount (%)
Lat 40.178
Lon -75.332
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec Annual
Average
22-year Average 72.970.372.966.566.564.862.462.860.157.667.471.966.3
Parameter Definition          

Monthly Averaged Cloud Amount At Indicated GMT Times (%)
Lat 40.178
Lon -75.332
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec
Average@00 n/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/a
Average@03 n/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/a
Average@06 n/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/a
Average@09 n/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/a
Average@12 n/an/an/a63.662.960.157.457.355.4n/an/an/a
Average@15 70.969.871.165.664.360.759.160.760.157.166.670.9
Average@18 74.871.774.667.669.969.268.968.765.159.768.272.8
Average@21 n/a69.372.869.269.169.264.364.459.756.2n/an/a
Parameter Definition          

Monthly Averaged Frequency Of Clear Skies At Indicated GMT Times (%)
Lat 40.178
Lon -75.332
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec
< 10% @0 n/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/a
< 10% @3 n/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/a
< 10% @6 n/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/a
< 10% @9 n/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/a
< 10% @12 n/an/a25.218.720.920.423.722.424.0n/an/an/a
< 10% @15 11.512.714.021.621.121.622.820.224.326.816.911.5
< 10% @18 7.9210.411.819.215.614.311.012.019.726.118.310.7
< 10% @21 n/a14.913.017.814.610.912.613.722.428.1n/an/a

Monthly Averaged Frequency Of Broken-cloud Skies At Indicated GMT Times (%)
Lat 40.178
Lon -75.332
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec
10 - 70% @0 n/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/a
10 - 70% @3 n/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/a
10 - 70% @6 n/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/a
10 - 70% @9 n/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/a
10 - 70% @12 n/an/a25.922.220.825.123.126.527.1n/an/an/a
10 - 70% @15 21.921.718.615.418.322.223.024.319.021.218.721.8
10 - 70% @18 21.423.316.216.217.020.326.524.618.317.816.319.7
10 - 70% @21 n/a19.116.415.321.225.730.929.723.420.1n/an/a

Monthly Averaged Frequency Of Near-overcast Skies At Indicated GMT Times (%)
Lat 40.178
Lon -75.332
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec
>= 70% @0 n/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/a
>= 70% @3 n/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/a
>= 70% @6 n/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/a
>= 70% @9 n/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/a
>= 70% @12 n/an/a48.858.958.254.353.051.048.8n/an/an/a
>= 70% @15 66.465.567.362.860.556.054.155.456.551.964.266.5
>= 70% @18 70.666.271.864.567.365.362.463.361.956.065.369.5
>= 70% @21 n/a65.970.566.864.063.356.456.454.051.7n/an/a
Parameter Definition          

Meteorology (Temperature):
Monthly Averaged Air Temperature At 10 m Above The Surface Of The Earth (C)
Lat 40.178
Lon -75.332
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec Annual
Average
22-year Average -2.2-0.573.7410.216.321.623.922.818.812.36.470.6311.2
Parameter Definition           Units Conversion Chart

Average Daily Temperature Range (C)
Lat 40.178
Lon -75.332
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec
25-year Average 7.257.778.729.9010.810.810.3 *9.869.769.668.026.77
* Warmest month
Parameter Definition          

Monthly Averaged Cooling Degree Days Above 18 C
Lat 40.178
Lon -75.332
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec Annual
Sum
25-year Average 0 0 0 3 33 117 185 157 67 9 0 0 571
Parameter Definition          

Monthly Averaged Heating Degree Days Below 18 C
Lat 40.178
Lon -75.332
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec Annual
Sum
25-year Average 628 525 436 234 84 8 0 0 33 178 342 538 3006
Parameter Definition          

Monthly Averaged Arctic Heating Degree Days Below 10 C
Lat 40.178
Lon -75.332
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec Annual
Sum
25-year Average 382 300 202 50 2 0 0 0 0 26 128 294 1384
Parameter Definition          

Monthly Averaged Arctic Heating Degree Days Below 0 C
Lat 40.178
Lon -75.332
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec Annual
Sum
25-year Average 116 71 22 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 56 268
Parameter Definition          

Monthly Averaged Earth Skin Temperature (C)
Lat 40.178
Lon -75.332
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec Annual
Average
25-year Average -2.89-0.963.7510.516.721.924.122.818.611.85.73-0.1111.0
Parameter Definition          

Average Minimum, Maximum and Amplitude Of The Daily Mean Earth Temperature (C)
Lat 40.178
Lon -75.332
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec Annual
Amplitude
Minimum -7.36-5.86-1.653.839.1014.317.016.412.55.820.96-4.05
Maximum 1.844.6510.418.224.930.332.530.926.419.111.24.23
Amplitude 4.595.256.057.197.947.967.767.296.966.655.124.1319.9
Parameter Definition          

Monthly Averaged Frost Days (days)
Lat 40.178
Lon -75.332
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec Annual
Sum
25-year Average 25 21 17 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 21 96
Parameter Definition          

Lat 40.178
Lon -75.332
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec
-7.15-6.19-2.312.827.4712.4014.9414.7911.165.190.74-4.59
Parameter Definition          

Lat 40.178
Lon -75.332
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec
-1.79-0.900.993.596.579.4411.8913.5014.2414.1413.4912.42
-2.92-2.17-0.461.844.426.929.1010.6411.4011.3910.889.96
-3.22-2.58-1.021.083.495.898.019.5110.2610.269.828.98
-4.11-3.52-2.000.042.374.706.798.279.019.018.597.77
-4.04-3.53-1.960.353.095.798.109.6310.2710.129.598.69
-2.38-1.530.342.975.968.7711.1612.7913.5213.4312.7811.72
0.411.333.305.989.0111.8914.3416.0116.8216.8016.1615.05
0.121.213.396.269.3812.2414.6516.2817.0817.0616.3815.21
Parameter Definition           Units Conversion Chart

Meteorology (Wind):
Monthly Averaged Wind Speed At 50 m Above The Surface Of The Earth (m/s)
Lat 40.178
Lon -75.332
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec Annual
Average
10-year Average 6.046.056.226.095.314.884.494.384.615.005.675.885.38

Minimum And Maximum Difference From Monthly Averaged Wind Speed At 50 m (%)
Lat 40.178
Lon -75.332
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec Annual
Average
Minimum -14 -11 -13 -10 -12 -9 -10 -8 -7 -16 -9 -6 -10
Maximum 8 9 12 8 13 9 12 7 7 10 12 6 9
It is recommended that users of these wind data review the SSE Methodology. The user may wish to correct for biases as well as local effects within the selected grid region. All height measurements are from the soil, water, or ice/snow surface instead of "effective" surface, which is usually taken to be near the tops of vegetated canopies.
Parameter Definition           Units Conversion Chart

Monthly Averaged Percent Of Time The Wind Speed At 50 m Above The Surface Of The Earth Is Within The Indicated Range (%)
Lat 40.178
Lon -75.332
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec Annual
Average
0 - 2 m/s 7 6 6 6 9 12 16 18 15 11 8 7 10
3 - 6 m/s 51 53 50 52 63 69 71 69 70 68 59 56 61
7 - 10 m/s 39 37 39 38 26 19 13 13 15 21 32 33 27
11 - 14 m/s 3 4 5 4 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 3 2
15 - 18 m/s 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
19 - 25 m/s 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Parameter Definition          

Monthly Averaged Wind Speed At 50 m Above The Surface Of The Earth For Indicated GMT Times (m/s)
Lat 40.178
Lon -75.332
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec Annual
Average
Average@0130 6.326.356.386.295.575.355.054.935.175.506.036.175.75
Average@0430 6.456.466.456.505.885.695.465.315.445.606.216.345.97
Average@0730 6.456.376.366.355.785.495.265.145.295.486.176.345.86
Average@1030 6.426.296.266.015.324.804.614.765.015.326.006.275.58
Average@1330 6.025.705.384.633.843.302.782.713.144.075.405.944.40
Average@1630 4.925.055.926.005.184.544.033.853.934.074.514.764.72
Average@1930 5.786.086.606.565.544.954.424.244.424.965.515.465.37
Average@2230 5.956.116.456.385.354.934.334.194.515.005.525.755.36
Parameter Definition           Units Conversion Chart

Monthly Averaged Wind Direction At 50 m Above The Surface Of The Earth (degrees)
Lat 40.178
Lon -75.332
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec
10-year Average 297 301 301 298 296 292 289 287 288 289 288 289
Parameter Definition          

Monthly Averaged Wind Direction At 50 m Above The Surface Of The Earth For Indicated GMT Times (degrees)
Lat 40.178
Lon -75.332
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec
Average@0130 288 301 283 238 233 248 239 214 223 262 265 278
Average@0430 291 303 282 247 249 253 243 218 223 263 263 283
Average@0730 297 306 294 279 279 269 262 255 281 294 279 293
Average@1030 301 307 306 304 300 282 280 294 315 310 290 299
Average@1330 302 309 312 316 313 300 295 316 325 315 295 303
Average@1630 306 314 314 291 289 286 277 296 316 315 300 307
Average@1930 298 306 298 270 260 268 259 270 290 296 292 304
Average@2230 291 305 297 264 249 261 255 249 282 290 285 288
Parameter Definition          

Monthly Averaged Wind Speed At 10 m Above The Surface Of The Earth For Terrain Similar To Airports (m/s)
Lat 40.178
Lon -75.332
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec Annual
Average
10-year Average 4.764.784.914.804.193.863.553.473.643.954.484.654.25
It is recommended that users of these wind data review the SSE Methodology. The user may wish to correct for biases as well as local effects within the selected grid region. All height measurements are from the soil, water, or ice/snow surface instead of "effective" surface, which is usually taken to be near the tops of vegetated canopies.
Parameter Definition           Units Conversion Chart

Difference Between The Average Wind Speed At 10 m Above The Surface Of The Earth And The Average Wind speed At 50 m Above The Surface Of The Earth (%)
Vegetation type    "Airport": flat rough grass
Lat 40.178
Lon -75.332
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec Annual
Average
10-year Average -20 -21 -20 -21 -21 -21 -20 -21 -20 -20 -20 -21 -20
Parameter Definition          

Monthly Averaged Wind Speed Adjusted For Height And Vegetation Type (m/s)
Height   100 meters    
Vegetation type  "Airport": flat rough grass
Lat 40.178
Lon -75.332
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec Annual
Average
10-year Average 6.706.716.906.755.895.414.984.875.115.546.296.525.97
Parameter Definition          

Monthly Averaged Wind Speed At 50, 100, 150 and 300 m Above The Surface Of The Earth (m/s)
Vegetation type  "Airport": flat rough grass
Lat 40.178
Lon -75.332
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec Annual
Average
50m6.046.056.226.095.314.884.494.384.615.005.675.885.38
100m6.706.716.906.755.895.414.984.875.115.546.296.525.97
150m7.127.137.337.186.265.755.295.175.435.896.686.936.34
300m7.907.918.137.966.946.385.875.746.036.547.417.697.04
Parameter Definition          

Monthly Averaged Wind Speed For Several Vegetation And Surface Types (m/s)
Height   100 meters    
Lat 40.178
Lon -75.332
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec Annual
Average
35-m broadleaf-evergreen trees (70% coverage)8.368.378.618.437.356.756.216.086.386.927.858.147.45
20-m broadleaf-deciduous trees (75% coverage)7.647.717.987.876.956.526.095.876.046.467.277.496.98
20-m broadleaf and needleleaf trees (75% coverage)8.608.378.378.096.956.355.845.836.216.877.908.317.30
17-m needleleaf-evergreen trees (75% coverage)8.137.927.987.706.766.265.805.675.956.507.427.816.99
14-m needleleaf-deciduous trees (50% coverage)8.027.928.037.766.766.175.685.716.166.787.697.927.04
Savanna:18-m broadleaf trees (30%) & groundcover8.028.038.268.097.056.485.965.836.126.647.537.817.14
0.6-m perennial groundcover (100%)7.287.297.507.346.405.885.415.295.556.026.837.096.48
0.5-m broadleaf shrubs (variable %) & groundcover7.287.297.507.346.405.885.415.295.556.026.837.096.48
0.5-m broadleaf shrubs (10%) with bare soil7.287.297.507.346.405.885.415.295.556.026.837.096.48
Tundra: 0.6-m trees/shrubs (variable %) & groundcover7.287.297.507.346.405.885.415.295.556.026.837.096.48
Rough bare soil7.037.047.247.096.185.685.225.115.365.826.606.846.26
Crop: 20-m broadleaf-deciduous trees (10%) & wheat7.337.447.297.766.766.215.725.595.876.287.027.186.70
Rough glacial snow/ice7.697.607.657.396.445.925.455.335.676.287.177.496.67
Smooth sea ice6.846.716.756.485.655.194.774.775.115.706.466.705.92
Open water6.476.486.666.525.695.234.814.704.945.356.076.305.76
"Airport": flat rough grass6.706.716.906.755.895.414.984.875.115.546.296.525.97
Parameter Definition          

Meteorology (Other):
Lat 40.178
Lon -75.332
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec
70.0767.7066.8863.4959.5359.2960.5763.6364.1264.5768.7569.50
Parameter Definition          

Monthly Averaged Humidity Ratio At 10 m Above The Surface Of The Earth (%)
Lat 40.178
Lon -75.332
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec
22-year Average 0.0027820.0029290.0038910.0053690.0073330.0100040.0116450.0114880.0092850.0062940.0047320.003274
Parameter Definition          

Monthly Averaged Atmospheric Pressure (kPa)
Lat 40.178
Lon -75.332
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec Annual
Average
25-year Average 99.599.599.499.299.399.299.399.499.599.699.699.599.4
Parameter Definition          

Monthly Averaged Total Column Precipitable Water (cm)
Lat 40.178
Lon -75.332
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec Annual
Average
22-year Average 0.910.921.111.482.022.763.233.112.521.731.401.031.85
Parameter Definition          

Monthly Averaged Precipitation (mm/day)
Lat 40.178
Lon -75.332
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec Annual
Average
25-year Average 2.962.743.302.943.303.113.383.243.512.683.243.103.12
Parameter Definition          

Supporting Information:
Monthly Averaged Top-of-atmosphere Insolation (kWh/m2/day)
Lat 40.178
Lon -75.332
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec Annual
Average
22-year Average 4.195.687.709.6711.011.611.210.18.356.314.573.757.86
Parameter Definition          

Monthly Averaged Surface Albedo (0 to 1.0)
Lat 40.178
Lon -75.332
JanFebMarAprMayJun JulAugSepOctNovDec Annual
Average
22-year Average 0.200.180.130.110.130.120.130.110.120.110.110.130.13
Parameter Definition          

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Document generated on Sun Sep 20 11:03:54 EDT 2009